Research Base for Effective, Timely Feedback for Students

Agarwal, P. K., Bain, P. M., & Chamberlain, R. W. (2012). The value of applied research: Retrieval practice improves classroom learning and recommendations from a teacher, a principal, and a scientist. Educational Psychology Review, 24(3), 437-448.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 1-13.

Butler, A. C., Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger, H. L. (2008). Correcting a metacognitive error: Feedback increases retention of low-confidence correct responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 918-928.

Dweck, C. S. (1999). Caution: Praise can be dangerous. American Educator, 23(1), 1-5.

Hattie, J. A., & Yates, G. C. (2014). Using feedback to promote learning. In V. A. Benassi, C. E. Overson, & C. M. Hakala (Eds.). Applying science of learning in education: Infusing psychological science into the curriculum. Retrieved from the Society for the Teaching of Psychology web site:

Hattie, J. (2012). Know thy impact. Feedback for Learning70(1), 18-23.

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The Power of Feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1) 81-112.

Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2012). Making time for feedback. Educational Leadership, 70 (1), 42-46.

Gan, M. J., & Hattie, J. (2014). Prompting secondary students’ use of criteria, feedback specificity and feedback levels during an investigative task. Instructional Science42(6), 861-878.

Kluger, A. N., & DiNisi, A. (1996). Feedback interventions: Toward the understanding of a two-edged sword. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7(3), 67-72. 27.

Pashler, H. Cepeda, J. T., Wixted, J. T., & Rohrer, D. (2005). When does feedback facilitate learning of words? Journal of Experimental Psychology, Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 31(1), 3-8. 28.

Shute, V. J. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78(1), 153-189. 30.