Overview of Cognitive Science and Advanced Reasoning Principles and Practices
Principle 1: Distribute presentation, practice, and testing over time.
- Practice 1: Present material at di erent points in time in different contexts.
- Practice 2: Test or challenge students frequently.
- Practice 3: Use cumulative tests.
Principle 2: Ground ideas in active, engaging experiences.
- Practice 1: Present visual depictions of core concepts and ideas.
- Practice 2: Encourage students to manipulate aspects of core concepts.
- Practice 3: Capture content in stories.
Principle 3: Provide timely, qualitative feedback on students’ learning activities.
- Practice 1: Give students timely and accurate feedback on their performance.
- Practice 2: Include qualitative explanations in feedback for complex material.
- Practice 3: Adjust negative feedback to what the student can emotionally handle.
Principle 4: Encourage the learner to generate content.
- Practice 1: Assign tasks that require writing or other forms of generation.
- Practice 2: Arrange for students to teach other students.
Principle 5: Select challenging tasks that require explanations, reasoning, and problem solving.
- Practice 1: Assign tasks that require explanation-based reasoning.
- Practice 2: Ask students deep questions and train students to ask deep questions.
- Practice 3: Present desirable di culties that place the student in cognitive disequilibrium.
Principle 6: Design curricula, tasks, and tests in di erent contexts, media, and practical applications.
- Practice 1: Vary the context and applications of tasks and problems.
- Practice 2: Present learning materials through multiple media.
- Practice 3: Encourage students to construct ideas from multiple points of view and different perspectives.
Principle 7: Promote self-regulated learning.
- Practice 1: Train students on metacognition and strategies for self-regulated learning.
- Practice 2: Provide students with an open learning environment.