Reading and Reading Interventions

In elementary school, reading may be considered an independent subject, but in middle school, reading is involved in all subject areas, so every teacher should be considered a reading teacher. Therefore, the reading strategies in this section should be implemented school wide, as part of a school culture that works toward high levels of student achievement in reading. Specific interventions and strategies are provided to support students who struggle to learn to read and perform below grade level, as well as students who are English language learners (ELLs). Providing opportunities for students to practice these reading strategies in every subject every day will enhance development of the reading skills they need to become better readers and more accomplished students.
3a_FieldGuide_Reading_July19

 

Reading and Reading Interventions

In elementary school, reading may be considered an independent subject, but in middle school, reading is involved in all subject areas, so every teacher should be considered a reading teacher. Therefore, the reading strategies in this section should be implemented school wide, as part of a school culture that works toward high levels of student achievement in reading. Specific interventions and strategies are provided to support students who struggle to learn to read and perform below grade level, as well as students who are English language learners (ELLs). Providing opportunities for students to practice these reading strategies in every subject every day will enhance development of the reading skills they need to become better readers and more accomplished students.
3a_FieldGuide_Reading_July19

 

Writing and Writing Interventions

To be effective writers in the middle grades, students must understand that writing is a tool to support learning in all content areas. Students must master writing processes, knowledge, and skills to improve their effectiveness as writers. What follows is a description of seven important principles to help middle grades students develop their skills as writers and their use of writing to support their learning.

3b_FieldGuide_Writing_July19

 

Mathematics and Mathematics Interventions

Applying Mathematics Interventions: The definition of mathematics include knowledge and skills that are used to access science, technology, engineering, and mathematics applications and careers and that improve reasoning and analytic thinking. Given the importance of algebra for success in high school and beyond, many states have moved to increase student expectations in this area. Thirty-four states now require Algebra I or its equivalent for graduation. Despite the effort to increase expectations, achievement data indicate students continue to struggle to attain proficiency, especially those with disabilities and difficulties. As a result, the National Mathematics Advisory Panel convened, and a careful examination of the research evaluating the effectiveness of instructional practices for struggling learners was launched. The following nine key principles reflect research in mathematics education synthesized by the Panel and the Institute of Education Sciences.

3c_FieldGuide_Math_July19

 

Cognitive Science and Advanced Reasoning

Teachers can implement cognitive and reasoning principles to promote learning across all content areas in the middle grades. The cognitive principles of learning are based on reports from (a) the National Academy of Sciences, 1 (b) a practice guide for teachers by the Institute of Education Sciences in the U.S. Department of Education on Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning, 2 (c) and a joint initiative between the Association of Psychological Sciences and the American Psychological Association on Lifelong Learning at Work and at Home.3 The recommendations here reflect the wisdom of these reports, which are based on scientific evidence, rather than being consensus opinions of experts. What follows are seven key principles and related practices from this research.

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